Skin Problems
 
Birthmarks Treatment

» The Red or Vascular Birthmarks
There are 2 main types of vascular birthmark
  • Port wine stain
  • Haemangioma
It is important to differentiate them as their treatments are different.

1. WHAT IS A PORT WINE STAIN?

This is a vascular malformation that is present at birth, grows out of proportion to the rest of the body and does not undergo spontaneous involution. It is seen in 0.3% of new born and is often seen on the head and neck. If left untreated it continues to grow, becomes thicker and larger and can develop into purple papules and nodules.



If left untreated portwine stain may bleed, it is susceptible to trauma and it can get infected. Over time they will cause distortion of the face or the limbs. Portwine stain should be treated early, even in infancy as the birthmark is thin and flat and easier to treat. The Pulse dye laser treatment is the treatment of choice. When done by an experienced dermatologist the treatment is safe and is usually started as soon as the condition is diagnosed and on infants as young as a few weeks old.

2. WHAT IS A HAEMAGIOMA?

Haemangioma is a very common vascular birthmark occurring in 12% of new born. It is usually not present at birth and develops during the first few weeks of life. It grows rapidly within first year, faster than the rest of the body. It starts to get smaller by the end of the first year. By 5 years, 50% will have involute spontaneously. Thereafter it involutes 10% each year and clears by the time the child is 10 years old.

Although haemangioma resolve on its own, 40-50% of them may leave a scar. If it is growing rapidly then early treatment may prevent scar formation. Treatment is needed if the haemangioma compromised body function like blocking the airway, the eyes, the mouth, the ear or the ano-genital region. If complications are present like ulceration, bleeding and infection then treatment has to be started. Treatment is by oral medication, topical creams, and by the pulse dye laser.

3. WHAT IS THE STOCK BITE?

Stock bite is a red birthmark that is seen in 25-40% of newborn. It presents as a salmon patch on the nape of the neck, the forehead and the eyelids. It usually resolves on its own by the time the child is 3 years. If it persists it can be treated with the Pulse dye laser

» The Brown or Pigmented Brithmarks
Brown pigmented birthmarks commonly seen are
  • Lentigines
  • Cafe-au-liat macule
  • Naevus of Ota
  • Naevus spilus
  • Becker’s naevus
1. WHAT ARE LENTIGENES?



Lentigenes are small brown spots that look like freckles. They can appear for the first time in a baby, in a child or in a young adult. Lentigenes can occur alone or in association with other medical problems. Although they resemble freckles they are different from freckles in that they do not darken on sun-exposure, they do not go away by themselves. If you think that you have lentigenes, you may want to consult Dr Joyce Lim, a dermatologist, to confirm the diagnosis and to exclude any associated other medical problems. The Medlite laser or the OPT light is used to treat lentigenes

2. WHATA ARE CAFE AU LIAT MACULES (CALM)?



Cafe-au-liat macule (”coffee with milk” in French) is a brown birthmark that can occur alone or can be multiple. CALM is commonly seen on the face and body. When it occurs alone it is harmless and does not need treatment. If you have multiple CALM then you may want to consult Dr Joyce Lim to exclude other associated medical conditions. They can be treated by the Medlight Laser or the Fraxel laser.

3. WHAT ARE NAEVUS OF OTA?



Naevus of Ota is a dark brown or bluish black birthmark commonly seen in Asian. It appears for the first time at birth, in early children or in the early teens. When it occurs in Asians, it is usually harmless. It is very rarely seen in Caucasians and when it occurs, it may be associated with birthmarks in the brain tissues. The white part of the eye may be involved in a third of patient. The dark colour poses a cosmetic problem and treatment is started as soon as it is diagnosed. Treatment is with the Medlite laser.

4. WHAT IS A NAEVUS SPILUS OR SPECKLED LENTIGENEOUS NAEVUS?



Naevus Spilus has multiple small moles scattered on a cafe au-liat macule(CALM) patch. Treatment is by laser surgery

5. What is a Becker’s Naevus?

Becker’s naevus usually appears as a brown patch during the teenage years. Sometimes the skin is rough and the hairs may be seen growing on it. It is often found on the shoulders and back. It is a harmless birthmark and is difficult to remove completely. Treatment is by the Medlite laser or the Fraxel laser or a hair removal laser.
 
...................................................
290 Orchard Road
#11-16/20, Paragon Medical Suites
Singapore 238859
T : 6834 9159
Email: drjoyce@joycelim.com
 
...................................................
290 Orchard Road
#11-16/20, Paragon Medical Suites
Singapore 238859
T : 6834 9159
Email: drjoyce@joycelim.com